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which covers packaged "lighting quality" LEDs through subsystems,
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NRL Scientists Make Computational Models of LED "Droop" Effect and Suggest Method to Combat It
LIGHTimes News Staff
February 20, 2014...Scientists at NRL's Center for Computational Materials Science, in
collaboration with researchers at the Technion, Israel, and Ioffe
Physical-Technical Institute, Russia, have created computational models showing
that the observed droop effect arises from non-radiative Auger recombination of
the injected carriers. The rate of the Auger recombination is proportional to
the cube of the carrier concentration. As a result, the noradiative Auger decay
rate grows rapidly with current density, quenching the generation of light.
The scientists suggested a method that could significantly increase the
efficiency of green-blue-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on GaInN/GaN,
AlGaN/GaN, and AlInN/GaN quantum wells. They published this research in the
January 25 and November 26,
2013 issues of Applied Physics Letters.
In order to suppress these non-radiative Auger processes that cause the
dreaded "droop" in efficiency as drive current increases, the scientists
suggest that one needs to create quantum wells with a soft confinement
potential. Dr. Alexander Efros, a senior researcher in NRL's Materials Science
and Technology Division, previously showed theoretically that a softened
electrostatic potential prevents carriers from acquiring the momentum necessary
for nonradiative Auger processes, and thus suppresses the Auger decay rate
which causes "droop". This concept was patented by NRL in March 2013. In their
latest calculations, the NRL-Technion-Ioffe research team demonstrated that
softening the confinement potential through the varying the alloy composition
along the growth direction can completely suppresses the piezoelectric field
that normally enhances nonradiative Auger processes in GaN/AlN QWs, thus the
droop effect in such quantum wells can be significantly or even completely
Rubicon Technology to Showcase Large-Diameter Patterned Sapphire Substrates (PSS) at LED Korea 2014
LIGHTimes News Staff
February 13, 2014...Rubicon Technology, Inc. of Bensenville, Illinois USA, a provider of
sapphire substrates and products to the LED market, announced that it
will showcase large-diameter patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) as well as its
line of 6”polished sapphire wafers for the LED industry at LED Korea 2014
at COEX, Seoul, Korea, February 12-14, 2014. Rubicon will exhibit its line of
sapphire products in Booth #4707.
The company notes that most high-brightness LED manufacturers etch a pattern
into the sapphire wafers in order to both improve epitaxial growth and extract
more light from each chip. Rubicon says that its patterned sapphire substrates
have been available for purchase in smaller diameters from other companies, but
claims that it is the first company to offer 6” and 8” patterned
sapphire substrates. Rubicon points out that it offers 4", 6", and 8" patterned
sapphire substrates for LED chip manufacturers.
“Rubicon Technology continues to pioneer innovations in sapphire
substrates,” said Raja M. Parvez, president and CEO, Rubicon
Technology. “As the world’s most experienced provider of 6-inch
sapphire wafers, Rubicon is uniquely positioned to drive the evolution of
substrates – patterning large diameter sapphire substrates. This advance
helps LED manufacturers gain the efficiency of larger diameters, combined with
the industry’s most precise patterning capability, all from a supplier
known for quality and reliability at high volume.”
Rubicon offers fully customizable sub-micron patterning capability with
dimensional tolerances, within ±0.1 µm. The company reportedly maximizes usable
area with an edge exclusion zone as small as 1 mm. Patterning comes in a range
of shapes including: cone, dome and pyramid, and in a variety of
Arima Optoelectronics Launches LED Di on Molybdenum Substrates
LIGHTimes News Staff
February 11, 2014...Arima Optoelectronics during the second half of 2013, launched red and yellow LED di on silicon substrates. The company leveraged its "laser cutting on silicon substrate" patents. The company has now launched LED di on Molybdenum (MO) substrates.Noteably, MO substrates have better heat conductivity than silicon or GaAs. The company says its new epitaxial technology and mask design allow the di on MO substrates to withstand higher application drive current. The new Molybdenum substrate LED di in the 14 mil chip size, exhibits a stable performance under 150mA driving current. These new generation MO substrated LED dice are now available in 14, 20 and 42 mils. (1 mil=.0254 mm).
Micro Modular Updates AT100 Test Machine for Production of COB LEDs
LIGHTimes News Staff
February 4, 2014...The AT100 test machine is Micro Modular's core production line for COB LEDs.
According to the company, the AT100 system allows a fully automated,
in-production optical & electrical test program for each LED on a substrate
or for singulated LEDs. Its modular design combines the optical test hardware
with process modules, like a camera-based dim test for die evenness, a laser
marking for unit ID and more. The system's design reportedly allows easy and
economical customization of the machine and production line for different
process steps and production requirements.
Micro Modular's AT100 offers a wide variety of possible sphere diameters.
The units on the substrate can be tested separately with the option of a
temperature controlled test fixture. The system has a new fixture design that
shields the substrates from environmental influences during the test. A special
coating on the substrate fixture further increases the accuracy of the test
While the AT100 was fully designed around the conveyor, the newly designed
transfer stations allow parallel testing of more LED units and larger substrate
sizes. The station is said to be easily adjustable to different substrates for
product changes. These transfer stations significantly increase the positioning
accuracy for denser substrates and ultimately leads to a large increase in UPH
in substrates per hour. The company also optimized the tester software UI for
the automated production run, with updates on user management, result reporting
and programming of test flows.
The input and output options include magazines or conveyor for substrates,
as well as tubes and trays for units singulated before test. MMS also offers as
complement the singulation and sorting machine AB330, in a modular design with
further marking and inspection options and the MOL42 degas & curing
Osram Opto Semiconductors Switches to 6-Inch Wafers for Red and Yellow LEDs
LIGHTimes News Staff
January 30, 2014...Osram Opto Semiconductors of Regensburg, Germany reports that it is
switching its fabrication of red, orange and yellow light emitting diodes to
6-inch wafers. For this reason, the company says it is extending the
fabrication of all large-wafer LEDs to the indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphide
(InGaAlP) material system and expanding its production capacity. The company
began switching fabrication of blue LED chips to 6-inch wafers back in 2011.
The latest switch involves chips for LEDs intended for an extremely wide
range of applications. Osram Opto notes that its Red and yellow LEDs are used
in virtually every sector: as turn indicators, brake lights and interior
vehicle lighting in the automotive sector, in displays, for projection, for
signage and for color mixing systems in general illumination. Osram Opto
Semiconductors asserts that it was the first manufacturer to switch all LED
colors worldwide to 4-inch wafers many years ago and is now continuing this
approach with 6-inch wafers.
“The demand for light emitting diodes in red, orange and yellow
continues to grow. We are keeping pace with this demand by being the first
manufacturer in the world to switch fabrication to 6-inch wafers –
thereby also expanding our capacity," said Aldo Kamper, CEO of Osram Opto
Semiconductors. “The switch will involve all product families and was
initiated at the start of the year," he added. The red, yellow and orange
chips will be fabricated at the company headquarters in Regensburg. InGaN chips
for blue, green and white LEDs are also produced there, as well as in Penang,
According to the company, experience from 6-inch wafer production so far has
flowed directly into the current process – as have the results from the
projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (the
“GallEff” project and the “Greight” project for scaling
indium-gallium-nitride wafers). Osram Opto Semiconductors noted that the
company is therefore pursuing its platform strategy and is already looking to
the next stage in development as part of its research activities, namely even
larger wafer diameters and alternative substrates.
Aixtron SE and Manz AG to Collaborate on OLED Manufacturing
LIGHTimes News Staff
January 8, 2014...Aixtron SE of Aachen, Germany, and Manz AG, a Reutlingen-based engineering company, have agreed to collaborate on developing further solutions for use in efficient organic light-emitting diode (OLEDs) production. The partners will be developing a new system based upon Aixtron's OVPD process technology to demonstrate efficient organic layer deposition up to a substrate size of Gen8 (2,300 mm x 2,500 mm). The new demonstration system is expected to enable the efficient production of OLEDs for displays and lighting applications on an industrial scale and at a reasonable prize for the first time.
Manz will be contributing its experience in purifying and handling large-scale glass substrates and in developing and manufacturing large vacuum systems. Together the companies hope to manufacture extremely homogenous, easily scalable thin films with high material efficiency and deposition rates. The new system will be assembled in the coming months in a clean room at Aixtron. As well as demonstrating the proprietary OVPD process and its scalability for large substrates, a key focus will be the qualification of new components.
OVPD technology has been exclusively licensed to Aixtron from Universal Display Corporation (UDC), Ewing, New Jersey USA, for equipment manufacture. OVPD technology is based on an invention by Professor Stephen R. Forrest et al. at Princeton University, USA, which was exclusively licensed to UDC. Subsequently, Aixtron and UDC jointly developed and qualified OVPD pre-production equipment.
San’an Opto's Xiamen Subsidiary Receives RMB 80 Million Subsidy
LIGHTimes News Staff
December 18, 2013...San’an Opto, an LED maker based in mainland China, reported that the company will purchase 20 single chamber or five four-chambered GaN MOCVD systems from global companies for its Xiamen subsidiary on Dec. 16, 2013. Xiamen San’an Opto received RMB 24 million (US$ 3.95 million) subsidies for four four-chambered MOCVD systems. This accounts for about 30 percent of total subsidies as of Dec. 13, 2013. This latest subsidy is part of an ongoing effort by the Xiamen government and People’s Government of Siming for subsidizing companies importing MOCVD equipment in the Xiamen Torch Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone to encourage optoelectronic industry development.. So far, San’an Opto has received 70 percent subsidiy for four multi-reactor MOCVDs. The manufacturing equipment subsidies received from People’s Government of Siming are considered as deferred income and are recorded in terms of the company's profit and loss over the equipment life span.
GaN-on-Silicon LEDs Forecast to Increase to 40 Percent of Market Share by 2020, According to IHS
LIGHTimes News Staff
December 10, 2013...IHS Inc predicts that the penetration of gallium nitride-on-silicon
(GaN-on-Si) wafers into the LED market will increase at
a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 69 percent from 2013 to 2020. IHS
forecasts that by 2020, GaN-on-Silicon LEDs will account for 40 percent of all
GaN LEDs manufactured.
In 2013, 95 percent of GaN LEDs will be manufactured on sapphire wafers.
However, only 1 percent will be manufactured on silicon wafers. This will soon
change according to IHS. The growth in the manufacturing of GaN-on-Si LEDs
between 2013 and 2020 will take market share from both sapphire and silicon
carbide wafers, according to IHS predictions. The accompanying figure shows the
GaN-on-Si LED market share outlook in terms of revenue for the packaged LED
“Manufacturing large ingots made from sapphire is difficult,
whereas silicon wafers are available from 8 inches up to 12 inches and are
generally cheaper and more abundant,” said Dkins Cho, senior analyst
for lighting and LEDs at IHS. “There is a large pre-existing industry
for silicon-based manufacturing that is leveraged to create economies of scale
and reduce the cost of an LED.”
IHS says that the shift to producing GaN-on-silicon LEDs is generally
accepted to require minimal with manufacturers only having to repurpose their
facilities. IHS notes that companies that previously manufactured CMOS
semiconductors already own legacy 8-inch CMOS fabrication units that can be
converted for LED production with a small modification. Furthermore, IHS says
that these companies already have in-house expertise and technology associated
with silicon-based processes.
“Many of the CMOS semiconductor manufacturers already have
excellent inspection tools, unlike traditional LED companies,” Cho
said. “This could help increase their process yield through in-situ
monitoring. However, it is unlikely the repurposing will happen overnight;
instead we forecast a shift during the coming years.”
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